1. Aerobics or "cardio." Run, swim, bike, walk, hike, climb, skate, ski, etc. This is endurance training. It's good for "type I" (slow twitch) muscle fibres, which require only 24 hours to recover. Aerobic fitness involves breaking down stored fuel 16 times more efficiently in the presence of oxygen, and it confers endurance and long life. You have to move enough to breathe hard and deeply, and keep at it for an extended period, for substantial portions of an hour, or more. It charges you up on endorphins as an added benefit, and prevents or heals a host of inflammatory illnesses.
3. Core/functional training. Here, we're talking about rotation around all of our joints, especially around the waist, off-balance movement and recovery (which improves balance), flexibility, functionality, fall and accident prevention, reaction time, stability, small-muscle strength, the ability to handle complex and unexpected movements, etc. While just pumping iron is fine for strength training (above), a totally different exercise strategy is needed for the twisting, bending, stretching and gyrations of (complex and integrated) core movement.
4. Lifestyle fitness. You can't just lock exercise into a scheduled time slot each day. You will STILL die years early. You have to incorporate exercise into your daily routines. There are 1-minute and 4-minute workouts you can do. You can park your car and walk, invent excuses to get out of your chair, take the stairs – not the elevator, walk for pleasure, change your position, get involved in physical recreational activities, etc. Fitness has to be part of your lifestyle, or you're not getting it!
5. Short-burst training. This is a new area with some very convincing research behind it. You go “all-out and whole-body” as much as possible in "bursting" movements (e.g., jumping, squatting, lunging, sprinting, throwing, kicking, punching and more) for intervals of 30–60 seconds (depending on the intensity level and the equipment/apparatus used for training) before entering the recovery phase, using a series of high-intensity, short-duration exercises interspersed with brief periods of lower-intensity movement. (Self-injury is not necessary to achieve the “short-burst” effect - never push hard enough to hurt yourself!) The intent is to utilize the anaerobic energy system. The primary fuel used is carbohydrate (which gets exhausted quickly), with stored fat kicking in later (in fact, for maybe the next 24 hours - this strategy is a real "fat burner"). A minute is the "magic number" for a human to go “all-out.” Research has shown that exercise intensity has a 13.3 times greater effect on systolic blood pressure, a 2.8 times greater effect on diastolic blood pressure, and a 4.7 times greater effect on waist circumference in men when compared to exercise duration.
In brief, to benefit by exercise, you need to incorporate all five of the above strategies in your exercise plan.
Here is the good news: Strength, core and short-burst training are EASILY combined, so we can beneficially treat these three as one group (by planning our workouts thoughtfully). Bursts are also easily incorporated in aerobic and lifestyle activities, so short-burst fitness can be fit into many places throughout the day. And yes, the research confirms... one minute of exercise has measurable long-term benefits. So you ARE NOT wasting your time to do this.